Moments of history

Who came up with the sheet music


Music with us - from the earliest times! But the familiar notes appeared not so long ago. Where did they come from?

Musicians have tried all sorts of ways to memorize melodies. For example, they learned by heart and repeated from memory. And they also wrote down with the help of signs, hooks, letters of the Greek or Latin alphabet - who in what way. Neumas were also popular - signs that indicated the pitch and rhythm, but helped the singers only if they already knew the song.

In the eleventh century, the Italian Guido d'Arezzo single-handedly solved the problem of musical literacy! He served in the temple and taught choir singers. There were many psalms, but there was still no convenient way to memorize them. Had to deal with each student separately, which took too much time.

Classes always began with a small and light chant - a hymn to St. John the Baptist. Each line had to be sung higher than the previous one. To prevent the young students from getting confused, Guido wrote down the first lines of the anthem separately, drawing next to it a small diagram of four rulers and squares. As in a song up or down, the squares lay on their steps, and each one corresponded to its height.

Soon everything became even easier - the squares turned into dots, because it was more convenient and faster to write them down. The first lines of the anthem were reduced to the first syllables: UT, RE, MI ‚FA, SOL, LA. Over time, the fifth line was added, and UT was replaced with the usual DO. The seventh note arose later from the addition of the first letters of the words of the seventh line: "St. John" - SI.

Well, in the form in which we all know it, musical notation has existed since the 17th century. And musicians can now play any melody - the notes around the world are the same for everyone!

Largest number


Tonti walked around the room.

- Molly! he said unexpectedly.

- What is the largest number?

- Quarkapatcrystalline,- Molly answered instantly.

- There is no such number!

- And there it is! So many cakes can eat the most important sweet tooth in the world ...

- But how many zeros does this have?

Molly grabbed a leaf and began to display rows of tiny zeros.

- The largest number does not exist. Because we can draw zeros endlessly, Mollina's grandmother intervened. - But there is the largest number that has a name. This is the number of asankheya. It was invented in India thousands of years ago. It is a unit and 140 zeros. And in second place, the number of googles is one and one hundred zeros. The funny word "googol" was invented by the little son of a mathematician. Googol is a lot. This is much more than the amount of all grains of sand in all deserts of the Earth.



Tonti flew into the room in Molly's mask.

- What is this ?! - Molly was indignant.

- Come on soon! We have a carnival today! Tonti said cheerfully.

- I'm sorry, what?

- Get ready and listen. This is a very interesting holiday! They came up with it awfully long ago, even in Ancient Rome. Slaves and gentlemen changed places there: the hosts offered wine to their servants, and they behaved as they pleased. They say that the word "carnival" translates as "farewell to the meat." Such grandiose holidays are usually arranged just before Lent. But in Venice everyone loved carnival masks so much that they began to wear them even on ordinary days.

In Russia, carnivals appeared under Peter the Great.

They lasted all night: with dances, jokes, fireworks and unmasking in the morning. The drums beat loudly, the bells rang. Different animals were made to scream. The noise was unimaginable! And at the daughter of Peter the Great, Empress Elizabeth Petrovna, at the holidays, a trick was instituted. Men dressed as women and women as men. In winter, the Empress held carnivals in a huge ice house. Everything was made of ice-trees, birds, tables, chairs and even elephants. The kids also had their own masquerades - with costumes and fun until the morning. But the most ambitious carnivals in Russia were held in honor of military victories. As many as three thousand people attended one of these holidays!

Well, 150 neighbors and all fifth grades from school will come to our carnival. So in your place, Molly, I would hurry. It's time to choose a costume.